Regulation of Air Pollution: Switzerland

Air Pollution ControlGreenhouse Gas Emissions ReductionRenewable FuelsEven though the air quality in Switzerland has improved since the 1980s, pollution continues to be higher than the ambient limit values set out in the relevant legislation. Air pollution reduction measures are mainly codified in the Environmental Protection Act (EPA). The EPA contains general provisions that apply to all aspects of environmental protection and is supplemented by various detailed implementing ordinances. For the area of air pollution control and reduction these are in particular the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control (OAPC), the Chemical Risk Reduction Ordinance, the Ordinance on Incentive Taxation of Petrol and Diesel with a Sulfur Content of More Than 0.001% (PDSO), the Ordinance on the Incentive Tax on Extra-Light Heating Oil with a Sulfur Content of More Than 0.1% (ELHOO), and the Ordinance on the Incentive Tax on Volatile Organic Compounds (OVOC).The legislation is mainly focused on reducing air pollution from respirable particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen oxide...

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Sulphur hexafluoride (sf 6): Comparison of FTIR-measurements

An estimate of the current production rate of sf6 gas is about 5 kt/yr. Based on historical emission rates, we calculated a present-day atmospheric concentrations for gaz sf6 of about 2.5 parts per

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Switzerland’s intended nationally determined contribution

Switzerland to reduce per capita emissions to 1 – 1.5 t CO 2 eq in Switzerland. These unavoidable emissions will have to be eventually compensated through sinks or removals. It is to note that Switzerland’s per capita emissions were already at world average levels in 2010.

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Switzerland | Climate Action Tracker

Switzerland’s currently implemented policies are projected to result in an emissions reductions of between 26-31% below 1990 levels in 2030, meaning Switzerland would possibly fail to achieve the domestic component of its NDC pledge which currently stands at 30%.

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Emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas Sulfr hexafluoride are rising

Energy consumption and production contribute to two-thirds of global emissions, and 81% of the global energy system is still based on fossil fuels, the same percentage as 30 years ago. Plus, improvements in the energy intensity of the global economy (the amount of energy used per unit of economic activity) are slowing.

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REDUCTIONS OF gaz sf6 EMISSIONS FROM HIGH AND MEDIUM VOLTAGE

2.5 Life-Cycle insulating gas Emissions 15 3 Emission Reduction Potentials 17 3.1 Introduction 17 3.2 Existing Emission Estimates for Sulfr hexafluoride Electrical Equipment 17 3.3 Expert Survey on Bank and Emission Development 18 3.4 Approach for Costing and Emission Determination 23 3.5 Selected Reduction Measures and Costs 23 4 Emission Development 1995-2020 41

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GLOBAL EMISSION SOURCES OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM

Emissions of gaz sf6 are virtually all of anthropogenic origin (Harnisch et al., 1996). Estimation of global historical emissions of sf6 gas can be based on a survey of global annual sales per application conducted by an independent auditor, Science and Policy Services (S PS, 1997). In this survey, in which the six major manufacturers co-

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Sulfr hexafluoride emissions from university and research particle

gaz sf6 university and research particle accelerator Emission Factor = 0.07, the average annual university and research particle accelerator emission rate as a fraction of the total charge. Tier 2 method - accelerator-level emission-factor approach. If data on the quantity of insulating gas contained within each university and research accelerator are available, a default emission factor of 7 percent may be multiplied by the total sf6 gas charge contained in university and research accelerators in the country.

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sf6 gas: The Truths and Myths of this Greenhouse Gas

Sulphur hexafluoride, commonly known as SF 6, has made a splash in the mainstream media of late. Several articles are pointing the finger at the growth in renewables—specifically wind turbines—as being responsible for the growth in SF 6 emissions, with some going as far as saying that the gas is the energy industry’s dirty little secret. In this spirit of transparency, we asked several experts from NTNU and SINTEF to separate the truths from the myths.

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Switzerland CO2 Emissions - Worldometer

Switzerland CO2 Emissions. Fossil CO2 emissions in Switzerland were 39,666,930 tons in 2016. CO2 emissions decreased by -2.30% over the previous year, representing a dicrease by -932,240 tons over 2015, when CO2 emissions were 40,599,170 tons. CO2 emissions per capita in Switzerland are equivalent to 4.73 tons per person (based on a population of 8,379,917 in 2016 ), a dicrease by -0.16 over the figure of 4.89 CO2 tons per person registered in 2015; this represents a change of -3.3% in CO2

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Switzerland / The World’s Carbon Markets: A Case Study Guide

achieving most of Switzerland’s Kyoto Protocol pledge to reduce total GHG emissions 8% relative to 1990 levels for 2008-2012.12 For 2013-2020, Switzerland aims to reduce GHG emissions by 20% relative to 1990 by 2020; this target corresponds to an absolute reduction target of around 10.5 MtCO2e by 2020, down from 1990 emissions of 52.7 MtCO2e.

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Switzerland targets 50% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions

Switzerland, which is responsible for 0.1% of global greenhouse gas emissions and, based on the structure of its economy, has a low level of emissions (6.4 tonnes per capita per year), should be able to avail of emissions reduction measures abroad to reduce the cost of emissions reduction measures during the period 2020-2030 (see Box 1).

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Reporting hydrofluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride gases

refrigerator unit [see section 4.100 (1) (a) (ii) NGER Measurement Determination], and • the gas has a global warming potential (GWP) of more than 1000 [NGER Regulation 2.02 and NGER Measurement Determination section 4.100 (1) (a) (iii)]. In this context, the term ‘charge’ refers to the total volume of the gas contained within

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Switzerland: CO2 Country Profile - Our World in Data

When countries set targets, measure or compare CO 2 emissions, they tend to focus on production-based emissions – CO 2 emitted within a country’s own borders. However, this fails to capture emissions from traded goods – the CO 2 emitted in the production of goods elsewhere, which are later imported (or the opposite: emissions from goods that are exported).

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Overview of sf6 gas Emissions Sources and Reduction Options in

Aug 28, 2018 · Overview of Sulfr hexafluoride Emissions Sources and Reduction Options in Electric Power Systems In collaboration with the industry Partners and stakeholders, EPA compiled this report on SF 6 emission sources and best practices in mitigating sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) in the electric power systems.

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History of atmospheric SF from 1973 to 2008

Nat- ural sources of sf6 gasare very small (Deeds et al., 2008), lead- ing to a very low estimated pre-industrial concentration, de- rived from firn air measurements, of ∼6×10−3pmolmol−1. (Vollmer and Weiss, 2002), compared to more than 6 pmolmol−1in 2008.

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gaz sf6: The Little Gas That Could… Make Global Warming Worse

Mar 25, 2021 · In 1997, the Kyoto protocol identified SF 6 as one of the six main greenhouse gases (GHG). Not without a good reason: SF 6 is the most potent GHG known to humanity, with a warming potential 23,900...

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Sulphur Hexafluoride (Sulfr hexafluoride) emissions: Electricity

insulating gas is an extremely effective electrical insulator and so is used in high-voltage switchgear and other electrical equipment. It is also a potent greenhouse gas. Electricity transmission owners are incentivised to limit their emissions of Sulfr hexafluoride. Ofgem target levels of emissions that we expect companies to beat. Methodology

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UNdata | record view | Sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) Emissions

The GHG data contain information on anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of the following GHGs (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), unspecified mix of HFCs and PFCs, sulphur hexafluoride (insulating gas) and nitrogen triflouride (NF3)) that are not controlled by

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1st International Conference on Sulfr hexafluoride and the Environment

Strategy to Reduce and Replace Emissions of insulating gas in Magnesium, Darryl Albright, Director of Market Development, the Americas and Pacific Rim, Hydro Light Metals Update on insulating gas Use and Emissions from Japan’s Magnesium Casting Industry, Kiyoshi Hara, Secretary General, Japan Industrial Conference for Ozone Layer Protection

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(PDF) Mitigating Sulfur Hexafluoride (insulating gas) Emission from

The results showed considerable delayed effects in gaz sf6 emissions associated with electrical equipment. By 2050, the cumulative delayed emission was projected to be 50–249 kt under the different

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Electricity Transmission and Distribution Greenhouse Gas

Sulfur hexafluoride is a commonly used insulator in electricity transmission and distribution equipment. Because of its high global warming potential (GWP), CARB adopted the Regulation for Reducing Sulfur Hexafluoride Emissions from Gas Insulated Switchgear in 2010.

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sf 6 Emissions | insulating gas Recovery | insulating gas Maintance | Electricity

Under the Kyoto Protocol, SF 6 gas has been identified as a greenhouse gas with a limitation as to the amount that can be released into the atmosphere. The following links provide further information into current environmental legislation and the correct use of sf6 gas gas within the electrical industry.

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Sulphur hexafluoride (Sulfr hexafluoride): comparison of FTIR-measurements

May 15, 2005 · At ISSJ, a two-step retrieval approach has been implemented for the SF 6 column determination. In a first interval ranging from 947.40 to 948.15 cm-1, SF 6, CO 2 and H 2 O distributions are scaled in order to model in an optimal way the two strong absorptions bracketing the weak SF 6 feature; in the second narrower window (947.80– 948.15 cm-1), CO 2 and H 2 O retrieved from the first run are

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Why the EU should ban Sulfr hexafluoride

What Is Sulfr hexafluoride? and How Is It used?Is Sulfr hexafluoride A Danger to Human Health?How Environmentally Damaging Is It?Has The Environmental Impact Even Been Underestimated?Is The Mitigation of Sulfr hexafluoride Emissions Difficult? Do Better Solutions Exist?Conclusioninsulating gas is a long-lived, highly potent greenhouse gas. It is manmade and combines excellent electrical properties with chemical stability and low toxicity. Moreover, It’s non-flammable and low in cost. These characteristics have led to its widespread and enthusiastic adoption by the electrical industry, which uses approximately 80% of all gaz sf6produced (Powell, 2002: 6). Within the electrical industry sf6 gasis used as an insulating medium for medium (MV) and high (HV) voltage electrical switchgear. A switchgear is the combination of electrical disconnect switches, fuses or circuit breakers used to control, protect and isolate sections of electrical grids. Low-voltage (LV) switchgear are used for controlling electrical circuits within buildings, medium voltage (MV) switchgear for controlling the electrical grids within cities and towns, and high voltage (HV) switchgear for grids that span a greater geographical area such as countries and regions.

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3.5 gaz sf6 electrical equipment other uses 20030113

gaz sf6 emissions at 6,060 tonnes or 73% of annual consumption in 1995, which is in good agreement with atmospheric observations. These emissions are about 0.4% of present global total CO2-equivalent emissions and 12% of total industrial process emissions. Resulting emissions per insulating gas application are shown in Figure 1, which

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Reducing Sulfur Hexafluoride (Sulfr hexafluoride) Emissions from Gas

Reducing Sulfur Hexafluoride (insulating gas) Emissions from Gas-Insulated Switchgear (310 CMR 7.72) insulating gas is a strong greenhouse gas (GHG), with a global warming effect nearly 24,000 times greater than carbon dioxide. Sulfr hexafluoride also lasts in the atmosphere for more than 3,000 years after it is released.

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Reference EWZ Oerlikon Substation Switzerland

Worldfirst gas-insulated switchgear installation with eco-efficient gas mixture. Hitachi ABB Power Grids has commissioned the world’s first high-voltage and medium-voltage gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) installation with a new eco-efficient gas mixture as an alternative to sulfur hexafluoride (sf 6) gas for ewz, a power utility in Switzerland. The 170/24 kV substation deploys the first breakthrough GIS with an eco-efficient gas mixture with a global warming potential (GWP)* of less than

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g3 - sf 6 Free Solutions

SF 6 sf 6 (or Sulphur Hexafluoride) had been the standard gas used inside high voltage electrical equipment as an insulating and arc-quenching medium. However, SF 6 sf6 gas is also listed as an extremely potent greenhouse gas according to the Kyoto protocol, with 23,500 times the comparative Global Warming Potential of CO 2 and a lifetime of 3,200 years in the atmosphere.

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TITLE DOCUMENT NUMBER sf6 gas EMISSIONS REPORTING - SUBSTATIONS 521

Feb 09, 2010 · insulating gas Emissions Inventory Reporting Protocol: This protocol is based on the EPA mass-balance approach. This method works by tracking and systematically accounting for all substation uses of gaz sf6 during the reporting year. The quantity of insulating gas that cannot be accounted for is then assumed to be emitted to atmosphere. The

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